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Chronology

Chronology


Chronology There are more links of time mentioned in Scripture than is generally supposed, forming together an approximate chronology. There is however one great difficulty in the variations of the Hebrew text from the Samaritan Pentateuch and the Septuagint. It is found that there must have been a systematic alteration somewhere, and if the Hebrew text is correct, a period of 100 years has been added to the lives of several, both before the Flood and after it.

The above figures form the basis of what is called the ‘long chronology’ from the LXX, and the ‘short chronology’ from the Hebrew. It will be seen that there are about 1400 years difference from the birth of Seth to the Call of Abraham. It is difficult to see why the Hebrew text should be abandoned; and if it were, what superior claim would the LXX have over the Samaritan Pentateuch?

A summary of the several periods is added, with a few notes and references to the scriptures.

YEARS.

From Adam to the Flood … … … … … … … … …
(Arrived at by adding the ages of the patriarchs, when the sons named were born.)
1656
From the Flood to the Call of Abraham … … … … … … …
(This is found in the same manner, and putting Terah’s age at 130 when Abraham was born, that is, adding 60 years to Genesis 11: 26: where only one date is given for Terah’s three sons. Abraham may not have been the eldest, and may have been born long after. Compare Genesis 11: 32; Genesis 12: 4, with Acts 7: 4.)
427
From the Call of Abraham to the Exodus … … … … … … …
(This is obtained from Exodus 12: 40 and Galations 3: 17.)
430
From the Exodus to the Temple … … … … … … … …
(This is stated in 1 Kings 6: 1 as in the 480th year, or 479 Complete years.)
479
From the commencement of the Temple to the division of the Kingdom … … …
(Solomon reigned 40 years, 1 Kings 11: 42 and the Temple was begun in his 4th year.)
37
From the division of the Kingdom to the Destruction of Jerusalem … … … …
(Stated in Ezekiel 4: 4-6 to be 390 years, or 388 Complete years.)
388
From the Destruction of Jerusalem to the return of the captives … … … …
(They were captives 70 years, Jeremiah 25: 11, 12; Jeremiah 29: 10. This began in the 1st year of Nebuchadnezzar, and Jerusalem was destroyed in his 19th year: 70 – 18 = 52.)
52
From the 1st year of Cyrus to the 20th year of Artaxerxes, when the 70 weeks of Daniel commenced … … … … … …
(Not given in Scripture. Cyrus, 7 years; Cambyses, 7; Pseudo-smerdis, 1; Darius, 36; Xerxes, 11; Artaxerxes, 19.)
81
From the 20th of Artaxerxes to the Era A.D. … … … … … …
(From the 20th of Artaxerxes to the Crucifixion is, according to Daniel 9, 69 weeks = 483 years; from which deduct 29, the date of the Crucifixion: 483 – 29 = 454). See Seventy Weeks.
454

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TOTAL 4004

The 430 years of Exodus 12: 40 are in the above taken to mean the sojourn in Canaan and in Egypt, the latter being 215 years; this agrees with Galations 3: 17, and with the Israelites being brought out in the fourth Generation Genesis 15: 16.

As to the time of the Judges it appears clear from Judges 10: 7, 8 that the events recorded did not all follow chronologically: there were oppressions in the west by the Philistines and in the east by the Ammonites in ‘the same year;’ the periods of some of the Judges also being synchronal. The A.V. of Acts 13: 19, 20, presents a difficulty, but most of the Editors (with MSS A B C) read “he gave them their land for an Inheritance for the space of [or literally in] 450 years; and after that he gave them Judges,” and this rendering removes all difficulty. It will be seen by the above that most of the dates affixed to the A.V. are approximately correct: the reign of Artaxerxes is an exception and is incorrect, as may be seen under Seventy Weeks. See Judges, Kings, Antiochus, and New Testament.

The principal events stand thus:

B.C.
4004 Adam created.
2948 Noah born.
2348 The Flood.
1996 Abraham born.
1921 Call of Abraham.
1896 Isaac born.
1836 Jacob born.
1706 The Israelites enter Egypt.
1491 The Exodus. The law given.
1451 The Israelites cross the Jordan.
1444 The division of the land. (See Judges.)
1095 Saul Anointed king: the Kingdom begins.
1055 David, king.
1015 Solomon, king.
1005 Dedication of the Temple.
975 Division of the Kingdom. (See Kings.)
(776 Era of the Olympiads begins.)
(753 Rome built: era of A.U.C. begins.)
740 Captivity of the two and a half Tribes east of the Jordan.
721 End of the Kingdom of Israel.
658 Manasseh carried to Babylon.
606 Jerusalem taken: first Captivity of Judah.
605 Nebuchadnezzar reigns alone. Time of the Gentiles begins in the first great empire — Babylon.
599 Jerusalem re-taken: the great Captivity.
588 Jerusalem re-taken and destroyed.
538 Belshazzar slain: the second great empire commences. The Medes and Persians.
536 Cyrus reigns alone. The 70 years of Jeremiah 25: 11, 12 end. The Jews return. Ezra 1, 2: (See Persia.)
475 Artaxerxes succeeds Xerxes.
455 Artaxerxes commissions Nehemiah to build Jerusalem. The Seventy Weeks of Daniel begin.
336 Alexander the Great, head of the third great empire — The Greek.
323 Death of Alexander the Great: his four Generals divide the Kingdom, but it mainly merged into two kingdoms: Egypt, ‘kings of the South,’ and Syria, ‘kings of the north.’ (See Antiochus.)
191 All Asia Minor on the west of Mount Taurus delivered to Rome.
166 to {The times of the Maccabees. about 65 {In 166 Jerusalem was recovered and the Temple re-dedicated.
65 Rome, the fourth great empire, rapidly gains ascendancy. Syria becomes a Roman province. In 63 Judaea is subjected to Rome. In 30 Egypt becomes a Roman province.
40 Herod is appointed by Rome king of Judaea.
20 Herod begins to rebuild the Temple
6 Birth of John the Baptist.
5 Birth of Christ. (See New Testament.)


Original text taken from the New and Concise Bible Dictionary published by G. Morish, London

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